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本文摘要:Scientists think they have found a way to stop the common cold and closely related viruses which can cause paralysis.科学家们指出他们早已寻找了一种方法来化疗普通发烧以及与其密切相关的病毒,这些病毒有可能造成中断。


Scientists think they have found a way to stop the common cold and closely related viruses which can cause paralysis.科学家们指出他们早已寻找了一种方法来化疗普通发烧以及与其密切相关的病毒,这些病毒有可能造成中断。Instead of trying to attack them directly, the researchers targeted an essential protein inside our cells which the viruses need to replicate.研究人员没企图必要反击发烧病毒,而是将研究目标对准了病毒拷贝所需的细胞内的一种基本蛋白质。

The approach gave complete protection in experiments on mice and human lung cells.该方法在针对小鼠和人类肺细胞的实验中获取了“几乎的维护”。However, the US-based researchers are not ready for trials in people.不过,美国的研究人员还没准备好展开人体试验。

Tackling the common cold has been a massive problem in medicine.化疗普通发烧仍然是医学界的众多难题。Most colds are caused by rhinoviruses, but there are around 160 different types and they mutate so easily they rapidly become resistant to drugs, or learn to hide from the immune system.大多数发烧由鼻病毒引发,但是约有160种有所不同的病毒,它们很更容易变异,并且不会很快产生抗药性,或者学会逃离免疫系统。

This has led to the idea of host-directed therapy - essentially making our bodies inhospitable for the cold viruses.这引起了“宿主导向疗法”的点子,也就就是指本质上使人的身体不合适发烧病毒存活。An individual virus does not have everything it needs to replicate. Instead, it is dependent on infecting another cell and stealing some of the parts inside.单个病毒并不具备拷贝所需的一切。忽略,它依赖病毒感染另一个细胞并借此提供部分物质。

It is why scientists still argue whether viruses are truly alive.因此,科学家们依然在争辩病毒否知道是活的。A team at Stanford University and the University of California, San Francisco, found one of the components which the viruses were dependent upon.斯坦福大学和加州大学旧金山分校的一个研究小组找到了病毒所倚赖的一种成分。

Scientists started with human cells and then used gene-editing to turn off instructions inside our DNA one-by-one.科学家从人类细胞开始,之后用基因编辑一个相接一个地重开人类DNA中的指令。These modified cells were then exposed to a range of enteroviruses - this includes the rhinoviruses which cause the common cold, and more dangerous viruses that are closely related to polio and can cause paralysis.这些经过编辑的细胞随后曝露在多种肠道病毒中——还包括造成普通发烧的鼻病毒,以及与脊髓灰质炎密切相关、有可能造成中断的更加危险性的病毒。

All the viruses were unable to replicate inside cells which had the instructions for a protein (called methyltransferase SETD3) switched off.所有的病毒都无法在细胞内拷贝,因为这些细胞内的一种蛋白质(甲基转移酶SETD3)的指令早已重开。The scientists then created genetically modified mice which were completely unable to produce that protein.然后,科学家们建构了几乎无法产生这种蛋白质的转基因老鼠。Lacking that gene protected the mice completely from viral infection, associate professor Jan Carette, from Stanford, told the BBC.斯坦福大学的副教授珍·凯瑞兹告诉他英国广播公司说道:“缺少这种基因使老鼠几乎免遭病毒感染。


”These mice would always die [without the mutation], but they survived and we saw a very strong reduction in viral replication and very strong protection.“如果没变异,这些小鼠总是不会丧生,但它们存活了下来。我们看见病毒拷贝大幅度增加,维护起到十分强劲。

”The protein these viruses were dependent upon normally has a role in the intricate scaffolding which organises the inside of the bodys cells, called the cytoskeleton.这些病毒所倚赖的蛋白质一般来说在简单的“支架”中发挥作用,“支架”负责管理的组织体内的细胞,被称作细胞骨架。The findings, published in the journal Nature Microbiology, showed the genetically modified mice were healthy, despite lacking the protein for their whole lives.这项研究结果公开发表在《大自然微生物学》期刊上。结果显示,尽管转基因小鼠终生缺少这种蛋白质,但它们是身体健康的。The plan is not to produce genetically modified humans, but to find a drug which can temporarily suppress the protein, and provide protection.科学家的目的并不是打造出转基因人类,而是找寻一种能继续诱导这种蛋白质并获取维护的药物。

We have identified a fantastic target that all enteroviruses and rhinoviruses require and depend on. Take that away and the virus really has no chance, said Prof Carette.“我们早已确认了所有肠病毒和鼻病毒都必须和倚赖的一个极佳的靶点。如果把它清理掉,病毒就没机会兴风作浪了,”凯瑞兹教授说道。

He added: This is a really good first step - the second step is to have a chemical that mimics this genetic deletion.他补足说道:“这是十分好的第一步,第二步是寻找可以仿效这种基因缺陷的化学物质。”I think development can go relatively quickly.“我指出进展比较不会较为慢。

”Exactly what role the protein plays in the viral replication is still uncertain, and will require further research.这种蛋白质在病毒拷贝中到底起什么起到尚能不确切,还须要更进一步研究。For most people the common cold is more of an inconvenience than a threat to their health, but in asthmatics it can make their symptoms much worse and some of the enteroviruses can causes paralysis if they spread to the brain.对大多数人来说,普通发烧对身体健康与其说是一种威胁,不如说是一种不便,但对哮喘患者来说,发烧不会激化症状,而一些肠道病毒如果传播到大脑,可能会造成中断。Prof Jonathan Ball, a virologist at the University of Nottingham, who was not involved in the work, said the study was neat but scientists would need to be certain the approach was safe.诺丁汉大学病毒学家乔纳森·鲍尔教授没参予这项研究,他回应,这项研究“很简练”,但科学家必须确认这种方法是安全性的。

There is increasing interest in developing treatments that target these host proteins, because it can potentially overcome virus mutation - one of the major barriers to developing effective broadly active antivirals.“人们对研发针对这些宿主蛋白质的化疗方法更加感兴趣,因为它有可能解决病毒变异——这是研发有效地的广谱抗病毒药物的主要障碍之一。But of course, viruses are very adaptable and it is conceivable that even a host-targeting treatment might not keep them at bay for long.“当然,病毒适应性很强,可以想象,即使是针对宿主的化疗也有可能无法长年掌控它们。